with Roger Luckhurst, 2009
'The Machine & the Ghost: Technology
& Spiritualism in 19th to 21st Century Art & Culture', Manchester University
Press, UK 2013
Documents of Contemporary Art: Science Fiction', Edited by Dan Byrne-Smith Published by Whitechapel Gallery, London and MIT Press, USA Feb 2020
Luckhurst teaches in the School of English and Humanities, Birkbeck
College, University of London. He is the author of 'The Angle Between
two Walls' The Fiction of J.G. Ballard (1997), The Invention
of Telepathy (2002), Science Fiction (2005) and The Trauma
Happens in the Gaps: An Interview with Suzanne Treister by Roger Luckhurst
Treister was born in London, daughter of a Jewish-Polish exile. She
trained at St Martin's School of Art (1978-81) and Chelsea School of
Art (1981-2). She lives in London, but has spent time in Berlin, the
USA and Australia. She was a pioneering digital artist, always interested
in the science-fictional possibilities of computers and computing, and
in 1995, she developed an avatar called Rosalind Brodsky, named after
her grandmother. Brodsky was a time traveller who worked at the Institute
of Militronics and Advanced Time Interventionality sometime in the mid-21st
century. Brodsky investigated the traumatic history of the 20th century,
travelling to its pivotal moments. This passage through time was partly
driven by an openly autobiographical attempt to 'rescue' Treister's
grandparents, who had been killed in the genocide of Polish Jewry during
the Second World War. As a patient possibly suffering from obsessional
delusional fantasies, Rosalind Brodsky was apparently treated by Sigmund
Freud in 1886 and 1928, by Carl Jung in 1958, by Jacques Lacan in 1970
and by Melanie Klein in 2058 (after Klein had been transported into
the future), all of whom left case notes on Brodsky. Installations,
art-works, case histories, a book, a website and an interactive CD-ROM,
emerged from this project. The last Brodsky project was HEXEN 2039,
which appeared in 2006 as an internet site, a movie, a series of exhibitions
and interventions into places like the Science Museum, and a book. In
a style that sometimes echoes the obsessional mapping and drawing associated
with 'outsider art', HEXEN 2039 unravelled a host of links
between military research, occult ritual, and mass popular culture.
These diagrams make frenetic links between Second World War American
rocket research, the smuggling of Nazi technicians, the black magic
occultism of Aleister Crowley and other self-proclaimed masters of the
dark arts, weird psychical research experiments, science fiction, The
Wizard of Oz, and the Jewish Kabbala. Since HEXEN 2039, Treister
has explored the NATO codification system (the military numbering system
that categorises every object that exists in the world into a 4-number
code, even including category 9999, 'items which cannot conceivably
be classified in any existing classes'). MTB [Military Training Base]
explores the use of virtual reality technology to train American soldiers
for conditions in Iraq and Afghanistan and extends her manic mappings
of hidden connections to epic scale (the exhibition centred on a diagram
over 17 feet long). These projects are all offered in a deadpan style,
leaving one uncertain about the level of irony in the conspiracy theories
and density of interconnections that are being mapped out. That some
of the connections made in the pieces are true is unnerving, for it
is now well established that the American security services have often
invested time and money into psychical and occult research programmes
(projects that have become the basis for popular culture like the X
Files). Where, though, does Treister leave documented history and enter
the realms of paranoia, fantasy, or aesthetic transformation? Paranoid
structures are notoriously difficult to disentangle from rational forms
of interpretation, as both Freud and Lacan commented in their psychoanalytic
studies. In the era of the internet, Treister's combination of interests
in the history of technology, the military-industrial complex, and magical
thinking about occult inter-connectedness makes her work an important
reflection on our weird and wired condition of being.
Treister's work is accessible in online form at http://www.suzannetreister.net
took place in December 2009.
Thomas Pynchon in Gravity's Rainbow or Stewart Home's use of
the occult in his avant-garde provocations, your work leaves the viewer
uncertain about where fact stops and fiction starts, or just how ironic
the sketching of these intricate connections really is.
warned me recently, 'Make sure you want to go over the line, because
there's no coming back.' He was talking about knowing too much, too
much basically about U.S. Military and Security history and programs.
He himself is way over the line, although according to an NSA (U.S.
National Security Agency) friend of his, there would be no way they
could have a conversation together where they were both talking about
the same things and knew what each other meant when it came to anything
there is the issue of how informed the audience is, how able they are
to distinguish between what may be actual and what might be invented,
and because my work contains a lot of information unfamiliar to many
people there are varying degrees of slippage, and that is interesting
HEXEN project, hardly anyone in the art world seemed familiar
with the material I was referencing. Most of the reviewers assumed that
I'd invented the whole thing, which I clearly hadn't. There really were
men in the basement of Stanford Research Institute and at Fort Meade
in Maryland carrying out experiments with 'remote viewing' for a military
programme, and there is no question that MKULTRA took place and that
it involved all kinds of experiments with drugs and the paranormal.
They used the facilities of many U.S. universities, there are records
to prove it, and the links between rocket scientists and the Ordo Templi
Orientis have become public knowledge in books about the rocket scientist
and occultist Jack Parsons. You'd have to be incredibly imaginative
to invent all this stuff. Jon Ronson's book The Men Who Stare at
Goats was one of the more interesting sources for the project because
he was one of the only guys who'd interviewed people in the U.S. military
who were doing the occult based research. His work validates much of
the so-called 'conspiracy theory': these are real people doing real
research. The American military have been interested in psychical warfare
for a long time, since the Second World War at least. Some of those
guys believe in it and others don't, but one of the reasons they do
it is in case the other side are doing it.
pretty widely on the history of military-occult relationships, from
the Druids, through Rasputin, Dr John Dee, the Soviet experiments and
up to the present day and a lot of that material is in HEXEN 2039.
It was just a matter of threading it together with the other areas I
was investigating for the project, like current neuroscientific research,
and coming up with my own theory of potential future technologies and
objectives within this strand of military research, and where that might
take us. What happens in the gaps is the art bit.
other difficulty of reading the work is that it's often filtered through
a persona , so these are actually the researches of Rosalind Brodsky,
rather than Suzanne Treister. It's another level of mediation or ironic
displacement: Brodsky sets up another screen in front of the information.
and also the twist in HEXEN 2039, made possible through the Brodsky/IMATI
construct, is the idea that this research into the military's (actual)
historical involvement in the occult and alternative belief systems
is itself part of a British military operation called HEXEN 2039,
which takes place in the future and whose outcome is the development
of new mind control technologies which enable the military, in turn,
to remotely (at a distance) alter belief patterns in the subject, whether
military or civilian.
2039 was the last Brodsky project of many, and in this instance
she was somewhat in the background. But it's important to know how the
work has developed because it's a sort of unfolding narrative. If you
read Brodsky's diary which I wrote back in the 1990s and navigated the
CD-ROM of her time travels, you'd know what the Institute of Militronics
was about and something of the nature of its research. It's kind of
like an imaginary SRI International of the UK.(1) IMATI is based in
the near future and the more recent projects focus on the programmes
of the Institute rather than the life of Brodsky. So the work is like
a vast diagram or web that you have to follow. The whole thing is a
sci-fi construct, like a series of novels set in the future but drawing
upon the past.
would you characterise your relationship to this material: ambivalent?
of the military material and focus it's not really about ambivalence
but more about ideas of complicity, since we are all complicit. My father
ran a defence spares business and combined with my family's wartime
history. I developed a love-hate relationship with things associated
with the military, which is different from ambivalence. And there is
the issue of science fiction writers who imagine new military technologies
and whose ideas may in turn contribute to military's research, which
may or may not have been their intention. I certainly never wanted to
make didactic, political work that's against war per se, it's unrealistic.
I'm not a straight down the line pacifist, nor am I an artist-activist.
I can't make that kind of art, but my work is political. I'm interested
in difficult complicities, collusion, ideas of responsibility and accountability
does this position extend to your use of the occult? You have not only
documented the military's use of the occult but in HEXEN you
have experimented with it yourself...
completely about suspending the question of belief in my work. I have
no fixed beliefs. I don't believe in binaries like normal-paranormal.
We are all chameleons and we have moving, shifting parts and that includes
our brains. About three times a year in synagogue I can feel like a
total Jew, I can even believe in God, for a few seconds I am tuned in
to a different level of understanding. Then on other occasions, when
for example I made my own remote viewing experiments for HEXEN 2039,
I experienced a hit, first time I visualised the target so accurately
it blew my socks off. I've heard that's common, and then you apparently
have to undergo training (laughs). Other times I am a total cynic, but
days later I may feel the world is a place of strange paranormal forces
and fantastical mysteries.
the sense that you want to fully investigate the practices of what might
be called 'subjugated knowledges' - whether it's remote viewing, or
using the kabbalah, or the manic drawing methods typical of 'outsider
to appropriate them. Yes, I want to use these methods myself; I'm not
a hands-off person. It's territorial, I like owning things. If I can
get my hands on the crystal the Elizabethan alchemist John Dee used
for his scrying from the Science Museum, I'm going to use it. When it
comes to 'manic drawing methods', these come about quite naturally when
you have to include so much information and you are doing it by hand
on a plain sheet of paper. Unless of course you mean the drawings where
I have appropriated existing alchemical drawings as a structural/conceptual
and A Time Line for Science Fiction Inventions, for example,
did you do deep research or do you just appropriate these alchemical
and kabbalistic structures aesthetically?
Line for Science Fiction Inventions uses the Kabbalah's tree of
life. I know what it's about. I had to, to make the decision to use
it, it's part of the work. But some of the source material for the Alchemy
project comes from a book of alchemical drawings by Alexander Roob that
I bought when I was living in Berlin and it's in German, which means
I can't understand each caption fully. So when I chose which alchemical
drawing to use in conjunction with information from a specific newspaper
I was deliberately half in the dark. I've read widely on alchemy, but
this semi-random way of choosing specific drawings made the process
more exciting and opened up each work to additional undetermined readings.
have any responses from people who claim to know the magical tradition,
that praise or complain about your uses of it?
had any complaints from religious or spiritualist groups, but I do get
a lot of interest from people who write blogs and various types of conspiracy
theory websites. Many of them have copied my images onto their pages
and in some cases have made links from their own sites to the HEXEN
site in order to substantiate their data. In most cases I don't think
they realise it's an art project. For some of them it isn't, it's an
information site similar to theirs. But then again some of their sites
look like other people's art projects. I keep a record of these blogs
and what they're saying. There was a long review on one of them which
was incredibly interesting. Someone like that is so well informed about
the subject matter, compared to an average art critic, that they could
discuss it at great length so this guy wrote a really rigorous and critical
review of the material without any sense of it being art whatsoever.
Once when I was doing a public gallery talk on HEXEN 2039 in
a regional museum there was an elderly couple who looked really angry
throughout the talk. During question time they erupted and demanded
to know why I hadn't included so-and-so or referred to such-and-such.
They were infuriated. According to them, I had edited various people
out of history. I enjoy this kind of interaction because it becomes
part of the work. If you work on webs of information and connectedness,
and especially if you put them online, then you can't control the boundaries
of whether it is perceived as art or not. That said, the same thing
could go for an FBI agent looking at my work, as for a conspiracy theory
there's no way to negate a conspiracy theory, because the refusal or
denial itself becomes part of the conspiracy: however odd, every position
this point I think we should define what we mean when we say conspiracy
theory. It's not a simple category. The term 'conspiracy theorist' can
include on the one hand people who believe the Illuminati are camping
out in their neighbour's flat, and on the other hand can include people
who have access to facts which others, out of ignorance, deem hallucinatory.
talk about your family background. Rosalind Brodsky is named in memory
of your grandmother, who died in the Holocaust in Poland. Your father
got out, fought in the French Resistance, and after the war went on
to set up an arms dealership.
the French Resistance my father escaped to the UK to join the Polish
Army in Scotland and then the Polish Government in Exile in London.
After the war, in the UK, he couldn't immediately use his qualifications
in law and political sciences (from the University of Lwow and L'École
des Sciences Politiques in Paris) so he went into business selling equipment
left over from World War II. It was supposed to be a temporary measure.
I was brought up being told he was director of an electronics import/export
company. That's what I put on the forms I had to fill in at school.
I can't remember when I found out what it actually was. Sometime in
had me when he was quite old and I sometimes feel like I'm out of sync
with my generation in terms of historical events. When my friends talk
about the Second World War, they're usually talking about their grandparents'
time. My school-friends came from settled middle-class families, their
parents all seemed to work for the BBC, some were hippies (albeit of
the 1960s Hampstead variety), whilst my dad was this authoritarian Polish
aristocrat who didn't want to read any more books, had a drawer full
of Holocaust photos and traded in spare parts for military equipment.
the Brodsky project shows you're very aware of psychoanalytic ideas
about transmission, the idea that the children of Holocaust survivors
have the trauma passed on, what's sometimes called 'transgenerational
know. It is all true. I can confirm it. In the past some people have
become angry when I've mentioned the war and accused me of trying to
get some sort of mileage out of it, but they don't understand that it's
real. I think it's had an effect on a lot of decisions I've made in
my life, good, bad and in-between.
I had to
come back to all this in 2000, when my father asked me to design his
company website. I was ideologically against the idea and fought with
him but eventually I agreed. As he was always too busy I had to do the
research myself, going round the whole company gathering material. The
only thing he insisted on explaining to me was the NATO codification
system. It was crucial to identify all of the parts he sold, which were
often simultaneously listed under completely different numbers in other
coding systems. He was obsessed with all this cross-referencing; his
manuals were yellowed and frayed like heavily thumbed bibles.
did the website, I felt uneasy about it, for weeks my brain was full
of pictures of tanks, warrior ships and other images from Jane's
defence annuals. When the site was up, as a way of negotiating my complicity,
I decided to acknowledge it as one of my art projects, so I put in a
link to it from my homepage. Then by way of explanation I added an intermediary
page which included biographical details about my father and the company
and my childhood stamp collection, which had come from mail sent to
the office. The company has now been sold and the current owner's web
page is different, but I've kept the original files and debated whether
to put the original website back online as part of my own site. Legally,
though, that would cause serious difficulties.
of projects since have been a product of that experience?
project came directly out of making the company website because that's
where I came across the codification system. It's totally surreal: it's
like a Borges novel. I mean, NATO probably have no idea how odd it looks,
from the outside, they think they're being logical and businesslike,
but to me, the idea of giving a 4 digit military group-classification
number to everything from works of art to live animals is disturbing.
Apparently it's becoming a universal system.
HEXEN 2039, then?
that comes out of the Rosalind Brodsky and the Institute of Militronics
project, which I began in 1995 and which came out of the broader family
experiences you were talking about. For five years, I was working on
the historical materials, Brodsky's biography, the book and the CD-ROM,
which came out in 1999. During that time I was living in Australia,
and being a long way from Europe, roots became very much more important.
It was during this period that I went to Ukraine (in the area that was
part of south east Poland before 1939) with my brother to try and find
my father's village.
while I was moving more frequently between Australia and Europe and
the Brodsky CD-ROM was finished, I decided it would be interesting to
try and expand on the hypothetical and supposedly controversial activities
of the Institute. Back in Australia I developed a couple of early research
projects of the Institute, one of which was Golem/Loew:Artificial
Life and then when I moved to Berlin in 2003, Operation Swanlake.
in Berlin I became obsessed with the weird underbelly of German culture.
My relationship with Germany is inevitably ambivalent and I was trying
to confront the reality of Germany now. It was another one of those
love-hate relationships. There's something about Berlin that is horrifyingly
stimulating because of its weight of history, everything is in your
face, not only the Holocaust but the DDR period and also much older
histories and aspects of the culture. I became fascinated by the history
of witchcraft in Germany. I decided in Berlin that I wanted to do a
project on the occult and I came across a lot of interesting material
in the flea markets. Although to some extent the Golem/Loew and
Operation Swanlake projects had touched on the occult, it wasn't
until 2005 that I decided to make a project that encompassed it more
fully. Before that, I'd say that science fiction and history were the
main interest. The occult stuff really only began to make sense in Germany.
You might say it was an evasion tactic, away from the historical political
realities, and into the belly of the beast and it was when I first went
to the Harz mountains, which has a huge witchcraft tradition linked
to it, that I decided to go back with my video camera for Walpurgisnacht
the following April.
material for what was to become HEXEN 2039 I was simultaneously
developing the narrative, which due to the nature of the Institute,
had to have a military imperative. And then, once I'd decided that HEXEN
was to be set in 2039, it was a matter of working out a hypothetical
future military research project that could potentially develop out
of the material I was investigating. I had been interested in ideas
of the occult as a teenager, but it was really being in Germany that
brought it back out. For a long time, I think, my interest in science
and technology substituted for it, because science and technology are
always moving towards things we don't understand.
work seems to very consciously move with technological developments.
You've worked on CD-ROMs, designed computer animations, were involved
in digital arts very early on, and your website is now a crucial part
of your practice.
got into computers because I became fascinated by the idea of video
games. I've talked about that a lot in other interviews. As soon as
I could afford to get a computer that could do graphics I got one. That
was in 1991. But it was much more analytical at that stage, I was interested
in a cultural commentary on computer games and new technologies. I got
my first computer, an Amiga, while I was reading William Gibson's Neuromancer.
The thing about Gibson is that it's not just science fiction but was
about defining our contemporary environment. It seemed to me that so
called science fiction was doing this better than art. When I went to
Australia, I couldn't take the computer with me, so I backtracked a
little and returned to painting. I made a series of software boxes,
hypothetical software packages that might exist in the future. In a
way, at the time, this seemed more interesting than anything that computers
could actually do, since they were quite limited back then.
HEXEN 2039 had the technology caught up with the idea?
turn that around a little, the future technology that HEXEN 2039
hypothesises may not be that far away, according to a scientist I met
at a conference in 2007. Apparently it's currently being researched
thing about the current tech world, which, unlike 20 years ago, is the
world most of us are now immersed in, is that it's so much about being
at the cutting edge of the latest gizmo, and the latest gizmo is more
and more about government and corporate control of content and information,
and so I got less interested in taking part in that. I'm interested
in technology as a phenomenon, an ongoing trajectory into the future,
but not necessarily in using the latest technology itself to make art.
Nor am I a Net activist or part of the open source movement, although
I'm for both of these in principle. I felt it was more important to
stand outside of these environments, not end up incorporated into them.
the idea of going back to old technologies to think about new technologies.
This is why HEXEN 2039 and MTB [Military Training Base]
use drawing, sketching out networks and links in pencil, making a physical
work outside of the internet, something that can't be deleted by the
flick of a switch. These projects have related websites with remote
links to other sites and so on, but I want them to end up as books too;
I'd be very depressed if there wasn't some outcome in book form. The
process is like writing a book, a graphic novel, a piece of science
fiction. Science fiction is full of all these meta-commentaries and
info-dumps and I love that capacity. So they're on the internet, but
also it was very important that HEXEN existed in the old technology
of the book. One day way in the future, if the planet survives, or let's
say the Unabomber gets out of his prison cell in Colorado and destroys
the complete worldwide technological infrastructure, maybe someone will
pick up HEXEN in a second hand bookshop, if such things remain,
and wonder 'what the hell was that? Is that all true?'
modern technology seems to have an occult double - the telegraph and
spirits, the tape deck and voices of the dead, the internet and its
deities and ghosts. Is there something intrinsically spooky about technology?
one of my future software boxes had 'Spooky' written on it...
its very nature technology is spooky, it preserves the dead, in film
and video, on tape, on cd, on the internet, every day millions of dead
people or 'ghosts' are walking around doing things; shopping, chatting,
having coffee, going on holiday, discussing the meaning of life. In
the same film, one of the players may be dead and another alive, there
is nothing in the technology of video for example to differentiate,
to tell us which is which, whereas online a site can be updated to reflect
changes. Perhaps in this sense the internet is not as intrinsically
spooky as film or video or audio recordings. But in another sense it's
spookier, especially now that we have the idea of the all encompassing
Cloud to look forward to, a massive techno space where all our data
could end up under government lock and key, with corporations like YouTube
co-owning everyone's home movies, you only have to use your imagination
to wonder what may become of all this stuff one day, the future is getting
weirder. There doesn't need to be a master plan for it to happen.
something spooky for us about technology because it transcends the human
body. The whole idea of virtual reality is spooky. I used to go to the
Trocadero in Piccadilly Circus and play on all the state of the art
VR games they had there in the 1980s. In video games you die time and
again in a virtual space but you remain alive in the real world. And
now the U.S. military are training soldiers using the multi-user computer
games inspired DARWARS program, 'allowing continuous on-demand
training anywhere, anytime, for everyone.' That sounds pretty spooky
the big claim about your work would be that it's all an attempt to understand
the trajectory of post-war history, its personal, familial and national
consequences, its military and domestic technologies, and the rise of
the military-industrial complex. Perhaps the only way to tell aspects
of this hidden history is to go to the occult or other kinds of marginal
knowledges, because it is a means of getting outside the official history,
the record of the victors.
a big question. But as I've said earlier, in terms of the military,
the occult is now an acknowledged part of the official history. Anything
you can do they can do better.
when I started working with new technologies they were a marginal knowledge
and I thought I was going to discover something about where they were
taking us whilst trying to control and make use of them myself. The
first text I wrote about the Brodsky project in 1995 contained this
paragraph: 'Rosalind Brodsky comes from a mixed background, part Anglo-Christian,
part Eastern European Jewish. Brodsky fetishizes history. She becomes
a necrophiliac invader of spaces containing the deaths of her ancestors,
through the privileged violence of technology.' That was very much 1990s
techno-speak but I think it means something quite real.
was a teenager I always wanted to change the world, but then some people
say maybe the world doesn't want to be changed. And we all know one
man's utopia is another man's hell. When I explored the whole fantasy
through Brodsky of travelling back in history to rescue my grandparents
from the Holocaust, it was a fantasy intervention into history. There
are things both in the past, and in the future, which you can't change.
As you say you can just try and get a better understanding of them,
and knowledge can be empowering, but it can also be depressing.
HEXEN project, and the sequel, HEXEN 2.0, which I'm now
embarking on, it's on one level about trying to imagine a worst case
scenario of what the military-industrial-academic-scientific-media complex
might do to us and how we might in turn attempt to alter the course
of history. I was told as a child that people went to the gas chambers
like sheep, and since the age of five I've been planning how not to
be a sheep. Maybe I am a paranoid conspiracy theorist, for example I
refuse to join any social networking sites as that would implicate my
friends in my activities. For most people this isn't a problem. But
for me, the fact is that the National Socialists did come and get my
grandparents. If, for example, the political situation in the UK changed
significantly, it would be quite possible to find yourself in a category
that some people didn't want to have around. This is what happened in
Poland. This is what happened in 2004 in the U.S. to the artist Steve
take a dystopian view of the future? That techno-culture is an ever-encroaching,
Ultimately the larger the weapon the greater the threat. That doesn't
mean a lot of people aren't going to benefit in all kinds of ways before
we get there or something else gets there first.
we back to ambivalence then? About never being sure about the epistemological
status of the knowledges you map, whether itÕs true or false?
false is not the point. All the information in my work is on one level
or another true. There is no invention, just re-presentation. There
is so much recent art commentary rhetoricising this supposedly fascinating
blurry area between fact and fiction. These people are missing the point.
It's an academic fence sitter position. There is no fence. Nowhere is
a fence. There is only exposure of the horror and the joy and the bits
in between, but there are no fences.
1) SRI International. This is an independent scientific research institute
whose clients include government agencies, commercial businesses and
other types of organisations. Originally named Stanford Research Institute,
it used to be part of Stanford University until the time of the Vietnam
war when there was a lot of protest from people within the university
who felt that its U.S. military (DARPA) funded work was co-opting
the university into the military industrial complex. For more details,
about SRI International, See http://www.sri.com/about/
DARWARS Program: http://www.darpa.mil/dso/archives/darwars/index.htm
The Steve Kurtz case: http://www.caedefensefund.org/.
'The surreal nightmare of internationally-acclaimed artist and professor
Steve Kurtz began when his wife Hope died in her sleep of heart failure.
Police who responded to Kurtz's 911 call deemed Kurtz's art suspicious
and called the FBI. Within hours the artist was detained as a suspected
"bioterrorist" as dozens of federal agents in Hazmat suits sifted
through his work and impounded his computers, manuscripts, books,
his cat, and even his wife's body. Today Kurtz and his long-time collaborator
Dr. Robert Ferrell, Professor of Genetics at the University of Pittsburgh
Graduate School of Public Health, await a trial date.' See http://www.strangeculture.net/
Cardinal, Outsider Art (London: Studio Vista, 1972).
Davis, TechGnosis: Myth, Magic and Mysticism in the Age of Information
(London: SerpentÕs Tail, 1999).
and Jason Freeman, Paranoia: The 21st Century Fear (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2008).
Grayson, 'Only Connect' in Suzanne Treister, 3 Projects: Alchemy,
Correspondence from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, and War Artists (London:
Annely Juda Fine Art, 2008), n.p.
Ilse Grubrich-Simitis, 'From Concretism to Metaphor: Thoughts on Some
Theoretical and Technical Aspects of the Psychoanalytic Work with
Children of Holocaust Survivors', The Psychoanalytic Study of the
Child 39 (1984), 301-19.
Home, Mind Invaders: Reader in Psychic Warfare, Cultural Sabotage
and Semiotic Terrorism (London: Serpent's Tail, 1997).
Knights, Conspiracy Culture From Kennedy to the X Files (London:
Luckhurst, 'The Science-Fictionalization of Trauma: Remarks on Narratives
of Alien Abduction', Science Fiction Studies 25: 1 (1998),
Luckhurst, The Invention of Telepathy (Oxford: Oxford University
Maclagan, Outsider Art: From the Margins to the Marketplace
(London: Reaktion, 2009).
Pynchon, Gravity's Rainbow (London: Picador, 1975).
Steffensen, 'Doing it Digitally: Rosalind Brodsky and the Art of
Virtual Female Subjectivity', in Mary Flanagan and Austin Booth
(eds), Reload: Rethinking Women + Cyberculture (Cambridge,
Mass.: MIT, 2002), 209-33.
Treister, ...No Other Symptoms: Time Travelling with Rosalind Brodsky
(London: Black Dog Publishing, 1999). Includes CD-ROM.
Treister, HEXEN 2039: New Military Occult Technologies for Psychological
Warfare (London: Black Dog Publishing, 2006).
Treister, 'From Fictional Video Game Stills to Time
Travelling with Rosalind Brodsky 1991-2005' in Andy Clarke and
Grethe Mitchell (eds), Videogames and Art (London: Intellect
Books, 2007), 130-43.
Suzanne Treister, NATO: The Military Codification System for the
Ordering of Everything in the World (London: Black Dog Publishing,